What is Kratom?
Kratom is a plant that is a resident of Southeast Asia, a substance that not everyone is familiar with, but should get to know… Kratom. This substance is also known as Mitragyna speciosa. Within this tropical tree there are compounds that can have mind-altering effects. Kratom has been growing in popularity over the last few years. It mostly appears on the U.S. market in a green powder form with noticeable odor, capsules containing the powder and extracts.
Why do people use kratom?
Kratom is extremely popular because it produces different effects depending on the strain and how much is used. If the person uses less, they are more likely to feel stimulating effects. This appeals to individuals that have a history of using substances like: crack/cocaine, crystal meth and Adderall. When a person uses more of the substance they will feel effects similar to pain-killers and heroin. It is most commonly used as a self-prescribed withdrawal medication, as well as, an opiate replacement. This means that individuals that get clean turn to Kratom to still feel euphoria. Kratom is not FDA approved and is not prescribed by doctors as a form of treatment.
Because kratom is a mind altering substance it changes the brain’s natural chemistry. Just like any other drug, the longer a person uses kratom the more likely it is that their brain will be expecting the substance. This is called drug dependence. If a person is a polydrug user, has been previously addicted to other substances or continues to take kratom in large amounts, the risk for addiction is doubled.
Risks and side effects of Kratom
Health effects reported from kratom use include: nausea, itching, sweating, dry mouth, constipation, loss of appetite and muscle jerks. Severe effects include: liver failure, seizure and hallucinations. Kratom is often used in conjunction with other drugs which is why it is associated with risk of overdose.
Should Kratom be legal?
There is much debate on whether or not kratom should be made illegal. Proponents believe that kratom can successfully be used as a harm reduction strategy. While others believe that it is a harm reduction substance that will lead users back to opiates because the effects are too similar.
Kratom has been under review by the World Health Organization and the report should be published sometime in October of 2021. If you worry that your loved one may be addicted to kratom or using it in combination with other substances, please reach out to our admission team today! 866-757-0474
Outpatient drug rehab is a therapy-based type of addiction treatment that DOES NOT include on-site living/housing arrangements. Outpatient facilities provide general rehab services, such as psychological and behavioral treatment, in a clinical setting. These programs give you the freedom to remain in a job or with your family while seeking treatment for drug addiction.
Who should attend outpatient rehab? People who are able to This type of rehab requires a certain level of participation per day or week in group/individual activities but does not require that you remain at a facility full time. Most outpatient rehabs recommend 6-9 hours per week, while more intensive programs include 9+ hours of therapy.
Outpatient drug rehab goals
There are several goals of outpatient drug rehab. Of these goals, the most important is recovery from drug abuse. During drug rehab, you will learn how to cope with life and how to get through difficulties without using drugs. In addition to drug-free living, harm reduction may also be encouraged. Here is a complete list of potential outpatient drug rehab goals:
What happens during outpatient drug rehab?
1. Screening and intake
During the screening, the rehab staff uses diagnostic criteria to determine whether your drug use constitutes abuse. If you are found ineligible or inappropriate for outpatient drug rehab, the staff will suggest an alternative program. Important factors for screening for drug abuse include:
the nature of the substance abuse
your physical condition
your psychological function
previous treatment efforts
When you are found to be eligible for outpatient drug rehab, you will be asked to complete various forms. Typically, you fill out an admission or intake sheet, complete appropriate releases of information, submit financial data, sign a consent for treatment, and are assigned your primary counselor during this phase of treatment.
During orientation, the staff of the outpatient rehab center will describe to you the general nature and goals of the program, rules governing conduct and infractions that can lead to disciplinary action or discharge from the program, the hours during which services are available, treatment costs, and client rights.
Next, outpatient drug rehab should take you through the process of intake and assessment. The goal of assessment is to identify and evaluate your individual strengths, weaknesses, problems, and needs for the development of a drug addiction treatment plan. During this process, the facility staff will assess your current condition, define the nature of drug abuse or addiction, and determine a specific treatment plan for you as an individual.
4. Drug testing
Typically, when entering an outpatient facility you will be drug tested as a formality. Drug testing happens in order to keep everyone at the clinic safe.
5. The facilitation of treatment modalities
Groups form the crux of most outpatient drug rehab programs. In fact, group counseling and therapies are at the core of outpatient drug treatment. Core services provided by outpatient drug rehabs may include:
24-hour crisis coverage
Community-based support groups
Family involvement and counseling
Monitoring drug use
Vocational training and employment services
Groups are favored during outpatient drug rehab because they provide opportunities for clients to develop communication skills and participate in socialization experiences. These kinds of interactions are particularly useful for individuals whose socializing has revolved around using drugs.
Establishing an environment in which clients help, support, and, when necessary, confront one another, is also important. Groups also provide norms that reinforce healthy ways of interacting and a safe and supportive.
Xanax addiction is becoming more prevalent in today’s world with the increasing diagnoses of panic disorders. Xanax has a high potential for abuse and addiction. Xanax (generic name Alprazolam) is a benzodiazepine, also known as a central nervous system depressant (CNS). Xanax is prescribed to treat anxiety and panic disorders and sometimes used as a sleep aid. Even when Xanax is taken as prescribed, you or a loved one can become dependent on Xanax as dependence occurs quickly with benzos.
Since Xanax addiction can occur so quickly, it is crucial that you know the signs of Xanax abuse. Along with knowing these signs and symptoms of Xanax abuse, it’s important to know the difference between Xanax abuse and Xanax addiction.
Behavioral Signs of Xanax Abuse and Xanax Addiction
When Xanax is abused, it can cause strange behaviors in your loved one. Some of the most common behavioral signs of Xanax abuse are stealing, slurred speech, and disorientation, and memory problems.
Stealing – Many people impulsively steal when they are high on Xanax. If you notice your loved one going through random spurts of acquiring things they usually wouldn’t have, they may be abusing Xanax.
Slurred Speech– When someone is abusing Xanax, it has a strong effect on them. Since Xanax is a depressant, it can cause slurring of speech like alcohol. When someone is addicted to Xanax, the side effects won’t be as noticeable because that is how their body is now used to functioning.
Disorientation and Memory Problems – Disorientation and memory loss are common signs of Xanax abuse. Xanax is used to treat anxiety by acting in the brain and slowing down nerve cell activity in the brain; this can cause disorientation in the user. It can cause short-term amnesia in those who are abusing Xanax. If someone is addicted to Xanax, they can end up missing large chunks of time and have no memory of what they’ve done for up to weeks at a time.
If you think that your loved one is exhibiting any of these behavioral signs, they may be abusing Xanax or addicted to Xanax. If someone is abusing or addicted to Xanax, they cannot abruptly stop taking the medication. Xanax withdrawals are one of the only withdrawals that can be deadly.
How Xanax Abuse and Addiction Affects the Mood
As with any drug, the user’s mood is one of the most glaringly obvious signs that Xanax is being abused. Some of the most common mood symptoms of Xanax abuse and addiction are anxiety, anger, and mood swings.
Anxiety – Although Xanax is a medication that is prescribed to treat anxiety disorders, abusing Xanax can make someone more anxious. They become anxious when they cannot get more Xanax, or if they are running low. When someone is abusing or is addicted to Xanax, anxiety arises if they are questioned about their Xanax intake or the possibility of having to stop.
Anger– When abusing Xanax, some people tend to get angry. Extreme anger can also happen when someone is addicted to Xanax. The reaction to Xanax is different depending on the person and if they have any other drugs present in their system. As with anxiety related to Xanax abuse, if someone is being confronted about their Xanax addiction, they tend to get angry.
Mood swings – Mood swings in someone who is abusing Xanax is extremely common, whether their mood swings be positive or negative. When taking too much Xanax, it leaves you extremely inebriated. Xanax abuse and addiction can lead to unpredictable mood swings, and anger is often a part of the mood swings.
When someone has unpredictable moods and increased anxiety despite being prescribed Xanax by a doctor, they may be abusing their prescription. Your loved one may also be addicted to Xanax if they do not have a prescription and are getting Xanax illegally off the streets.
Physical Signs and Symptoms of Xanax Abuse
The physical symptoms of Xanax abuse mimic extreme drunkenness and can also mimic some of the physical signs of opiate abuse. Some of the most common physical signs of Xanax abuse are:
Lack of coordination
Swelling in hands and feet
Fluctuations in weight
While these are common physical signs of Xanax abuse, the symptoms may exhibit similar signs of alcohol abuse and opiate abuse. Although Xanax can be abused by itself, many people who are addicted to drugs will combine multiple drugs to create a more intense high. Benzos such as Xanax, have been a large factor in overdose deaths in the past few years. Mixing other drugs or alcohol with Xanax is extremely dangerous and potentially fatal.
Xanax Abuse and Xanax Addiction: What’s the Difference?
Although the signs and symptoms of Xanax abuse and Xanax addiction are the same, the distinct difference is in if your loved one is addicted to Xanax or just abusing Xanax. When someone is abusing Xanax, they are often taking it at certain times like during a stressful situation, or for a specific occasion. When someone is abusing Xanax, they can likely stop at any time. When someone is addicted to Xanax is unable to control their intake of Xanax, they have a strong compulsion to take it and will continue to take it no matter the consequences. They need Xanax to function “normally” and cannot manage daily life without it. Needing Xanax to function is when the line from abuse crosses into an addiction to Xanax.
When someone who is addicted to Xanax stops taking it without medical supervision, they can go into life-threatening withdrawals. If your loved one is exhibiting these signs, they are most likely addicted to or are abusing Xanax. There are treatment options available for Xanax addiction.
Crack and Cocaine Addiction
crack and cocaine addiction cocaine is a drug that is derived from the coca plant. It’s a powerful stimulant that is also very addictive. The freebase form of this drug that can be smoked is often referred to as crack. This drug first hit the streets during the 1980s and has been a scourge to society ever since.
Crack cocaine is one of the most widely-used drugs today. According to the National Institute On Drug Abuse, five million people over the age of 12 have used this substance within the past year.
The effects of crack cocaine are felt shortly after a person uses it. There are both physical and psychological effects that users may experience. Some of the physical and psychological effects include:
Elevated blood pressure
Increased heart rate
Constricted blood vessels
Keep in mind that crack cocaine has been shown to cause sudden cardiac arrest. This drug causes a rapid heartbeat. The heart may beat so fast that it actually stops.
Regardless of whether people are using this drug for the first time or the 100th time, they are still at an increased risk of going into cardiac arrest. In fact, many users have gone into cardiac arrest and died after their first time using crack cocaine. Others have suffered cardiac arrest after using it for many years.
Withdrawing from crack cocaine doesn’t cause any particular physical symptoms. That is why many users believe that it’s not possible to develop an addiction to it. However, this drug can cause psychological symptoms, including:
Sleep disturbances are also common among people who are withdrawing from this drug. Other symptoms include poor concentration and low enthusiasm.
The person using crack cocaine is not the only one affected by it. Many families have been ruined as a result of crack use. Additionally, people have lost their jobs due to their addiction.
What Is The Best Way To Handle A Crack and Cocaine Addiction?
Many people know someone who has ruined his or her life because of a crack or cocaine addiction. Fortunately, drug addiction doesn’t have to destroy a person’s life. Professional drug rehab is the answer to overcoming any type of addiction and getting your life back on track.
Cocaine is an addictive stimulant. No antidote for the drug exists, so any overdose is potentially lethal.
Cocaine is derived from the South American coca leaf. Over 100 years ago, scientists isolated the purified chemical that is cocaine. Early on, cocaine appeared in several products including Coca-Cola. Surgeons used it as a local anesthetic. Father of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud recommended regular cocaine use for one’s health.
It took decades before doctors realized how addictive cocaine was and how dangerous it could be. Today, cocaine continues to have limited medical uses, but it is mostly sold on the street as a drug of abuse. In 2014, more than 1.5 million people in the United States over the age of 12 used cocaine. The average cocaine user is between the ages of 17 and 30.
Cocaine can enter the system in many ways. Some people snort finely ground cocaine powder. Another version, referred to as “crack,” is smoked like a cigarette. Cocaine may also be reduced to liquid and injected into a vein. Of all the methods of taking cocaine, injecting it is the most dangerous.
What Constitutes a Cocaine Overdose?
What exactly constitutes an overdose of cocaine can be difficult to define. Some people show signs of overdose after only 30 mg, a relatively small dosage. Other people can take several grams with exhibiting any symptoms of overdose.
Sometimes a person will use cocaine for long enough to build up a tolerance. That person may then abstain for a period of time. If he or she starts using again at the same levels he or she used before, his or her tolerance may have decreased, making an overdose more likely.
Some people believe incorrectly that you have to use cocaine for a long time before an overdose can occur. The truth is that some people may overdose the first time they try the drug and others may use large amounts of cocaine for years without ever overdosing.
Another factor in whether or not an overdose occurs is polysubstance abuse or using several different drugs at the same time. People who abuse cocaine often use alcohol, narcotics or benzodiazepines.
Cocaine absorbs rapidly into the system. If a toxic amount is used, symptoms may appear in less than five minutes.
What Are the Symptoms of Cocaine Overdose?
There are many physical, emotional and cognitive symptoms of cocaine overdose. Physically, the blood pressure shoots up to dangerous levels. The heart rate increases and becomes irregular and the body’s temperature increases. Many people exhibit nausea and vomiting. You may notice your hands or your entire body shaking, and your teeth may grind and chatter. Other physical symptoms of overdose include restlessness and agitation, chest pain, headache, dizziness, seizures, and coma.
Emotionally, you may experience wide mood swings, panic attacks, and paranoia. You may have suicidal thoughts or impulses. Some people talk excessively and can’t calm down. These emotional symptoms sometimes intensify physical symptoms. For instance, a panic attack can put extra strain on the heart and lungs.
Cognitive symptoms include confusion and psychosis, or loss of touch with reality. For example, if you have overdosed on cocaine, you may think that aliens are implanting thoughts into your brain or that someone in your life is trying to harm you.
These symptoms are certainly disturbing in their own right, but they can also be precursors to a heart attack or a stroke which can lead to permanent disability or worse, sudden death.
How Is a Cocaine Overdose Treated?
If you or someone you care about is showing signs of a cocaine overdose, there are several steps you can take to minimize the damage. First and foremost, call 911 and ask for an ambulance. Your loved one needs professional medical treatment immediately.
Next, keep your loved one as calm as possible. Speak in a calm, reassuring tone of voice, and don’t argue if he or she is having irrational beliefs. keep telling your loved one that everything will be okay.
If your loved one has a seizure, clear items from the area as much as possible to avoid collisions with furniture.
Place cold compresses on your loved one’s forehead to try to get his or her temperature down. If your loved one is fully conscious and not having seizures, give him or her a few sips of cold water.
Most importantly, don’t leave your loved one alone. Stay until help arrives.
How Do Medical Professionals Treat a Cocaine Overdose?
A cocaine overdose can cause death in many ways. Toxic cocaine levels can cause the coronary arteries to constrict, starving the heart of oxygen and blood. This forces the heart to work harder and may lead to cardiac arrest. Too much cocaine can also cause the lungs to spasm or collapse.
There is no simple antidote to treat cocaine overdoses. Doctors generally administer benzodiazepines like Valium to reduce heart rate and blood pressure and to calm the patient down. They can also attempt resuscitation and put the patient on life support if the heart or lungs fail.
If you or a loved one is treated for a cocaine overdose, it is important to avoid overdosing again. Each overdose wreaks havoc on the heart, lungs, and brain. The damage is cumulative, meaning that each overdose puts you at a higher rate of death.
How Can You Avoid the Risk of Contain Overdose?
Since even small amounts of cocaine can be toxic, the best way to avoid an overdose is to get treatment to help you permanently abstain from cocaine and any other drugs you may be taking.
Treatment options include detox – a program to help you get the drugs out of your system, inpatient or residential treatment, intensive outpatient treatment – a program you attend several hours a day three to five days a week, support groups and counseling. Counseling can be especially helpful if you have underlying mental health issues such as depression or a personality disorder.
The following medications are approved by the FDA for use in opioid addiction treatment in conjunction with psychosocial therapy:
Methadone – Methadone, a synthetic opioid, is an agonist that mitigates opioid withdrawal symptoms and, at higher doses, blocks the effects of heroin and other drugs containing opiates. Maintenance of opioid addiction treatment with methadone is approved “in conjunction with appropriate social and medical services.” Used successfully for more than 40 years in the treatment of opioid dependence, methadone at therapeutic doses (generally 80-120 mg) has been shown to eliminate withdrawal symptoms produced by stopping the use of heroin and prescription opiate medications because it acts on the same targets in the brain as those drugs. Methadone can be dispensed only at an outpatient Opioid Treatment Program (OTP) certified by SAMHSA and registered with the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), to a hospitalized patient in an emergency, or as a three-day bridge until a patient can be scheduled with an OTP. SAMHSA-certified OTP facilities provide daily doses.
Buprenorphine – Buprenorphine, approved by the FDA in 2002 to treat opioid dependence, is a partial opioid agonist that, when dosed appropriately, suppresses withdrawal symptoms. Although buprenorphine can produce opioid agonist effects and side effects, such as euphoria and respiratory depression, its maximal effects are generally milder than those of full agonists like heroin and methadone. Physicians are permitted to distribute buprenorphine at intensive outpatient treatment programs that are authorized to provide methadone if providers are trained in its use. Additionally, a special program has been established so that buprenorphine can be prescribed by physicians in office settings and dispensed by pharmacists.
In order to prescribe this medication, physicians must complete a training course and receive a waiver granted by the DEA. Buprenorphine was tested in clinical trials for addiction treatment in the United States both by itself and in combination with naloxone, a drug used to counter the effects of an overdose of opiates such as heroin or morphine. The buprenorphine/naloxone combination is sometimes referred to as Bup/Nx (marketed under the brand name Suboxone®). Formulations approved for drug abuse treatment are intended to be taken sublingually (placed under the tongue and allowed to dissolve). When taken this way, the naloxone has little effect. However, if a patient injects Bup/Nx, the naloxone (an antagonist) enters the bloodstream and will block the buprenorphine, causing the patient to enter opioid withdrawal. This combination formulation may deter abuse through injecting because abusers are motivated to avoid unpleasant withdrawal symptoms.
Naltrexone – Naltrexone is a non-addictive antagonist used in the treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence. The medication blocks opioid receptors so they cannot be activated. This “blockade” action, combined with naltrexone’s ability to bind to opioid receptors even in the presence of other opioids, helps keep abused drugs from exerting their effects when patients have taken or have been administered naltrexone. As an antagonist, naltrexone does not mimic the effects of opioids. Rather, it simply blocks opioid receptor sites so that other substances present in a patient’s system cannot bind to them. If a patient who has been administered naltrexone attempts to continue taking opioids, he or she will be unable to feel any of the opioid’s effects due to naltrexone’s blocking action. Naltrexone is administered in an injectable, long-acting formulation (marketed under the brand name Vivitrol®), which is designed for once-monthly dosing.
The FDA approved this medication for use in people with opioid use disorders to prevent relapse. Naltrexone should be used only in patients who have been detoxified from opioids and have been opioid-free for 7–10 days. Naltrexone is non-narcotic and non-addictive; however, as with other medications that interact with the opioid receptors, there is a risk of overdose if a patient who is being treated with naltrexone misses a dose and takes an opioid, or if the patient takes large quantities of opioids in an attempt to “break the blockade.” Compliance measures that closely monitor patients during the treatment period may be beneficial.